Computer Programming For Beginners – Integral Parts of Programming Languages

Are you new in the field of computer programming? Then it is very important to know and understand the common concepts and principles involved in such field. While computer programming for beginners comes with a certain level of difficulty, it is still achievable especially if you are equipped with the basic principles and concepts.

Writing a program involves storing data as well as manipulating it by means of a series of instructions. Included in the data are time and countable factors such as names, dates, and descriptions. By means of data types, you’ll be able to find out how a data must be stored and used.

Most programming languages such as C, C#, C , Visual Basic, and Java have integral parts which novice programmers need to get acquainted with. Among such parts are:

  • Variables

Wannabe programmers have to understand that variables provide them with momentary storeroom for any information needed while the program is used. Variables also play a great role in moving information from one section of the program to another. There’s also the so-called local variable which can be accessed or modified by a specified portion of a program and global variables which are accessible to any part of the program.

  • Data types

Any computer language comes with data types because they help maintain information contained in the program. However, programming languages have some restrictions on the data types they provide. Among the popular data types are characters, pointers, numbers, and strings. Numbers come in either floating points or integers. String data conceals internals that can be manipulated via exposed functions. Additionally, character data type stocks up numbers, symbols, letters, and spaces while the pointer means a piece of memory which can also be utilized for storing arrays.

  • Output

Since it is an important part of any programming language, it is advisable that you have a good understanding of the various types of outputs in majority of the computer programming languages. One of the popular types is text output, which provides a simple means of revealing the result of a particular computer program. Graphical output is a bit difficult and it needs higher resolution.

  • Testing conditions

These allow you to find out the path through a program by implementing a code with value as the basis. This value, which can be variable, another expression, or constant, is compared against an expression. One example of a testing condition statement is “if”. In case the validations became unsuccessful, many computer languages let you define a chunk of code that needs to be executed using “else” statement.

Aside from the indispensable elements of programming languages, computer programming for beginners also requires you to be familiar of the different language categories which include compiled languages, mark-up languages, and programming languages. It is also wise to have full understanding of the general principles and concepts behind each and every programming language. All of these factors are very much useful in helping you become an expert in a particular programming language or in computer programming in general.

Computer Programming Basics – Language You Can Use in Creating Programs

Individuals who want to learn computer programming and the languages that can be used in making programs must first be familiar with the basics. Languages employed in programming should be one of your primary considerations. Prior to creating programs, it is crucial that you know the different types and levels of programming languages. Among these are:

1. Machine Level Language
We all know that computers work in bits and bytes and it reads and understands binary digits 0 and 1. While you are free to make a program in any language you want, it has to be transformed into the languages of Os and 1s before it can be implemented.

It means you need to write a program or to convert your written program into machine language. And this is no easy task. It is nearly impossible to memorize a long sequence of 0s and 1s for each instruction you wish to be executed.

Yes it is true that before the development of high level languages, the ones used in making programming codes are machine level languages. These days, however, this level of language is not used anymore in designing computer programs.

2. Assembly Level Language
This level of programming is only one level higher than low level or machine languages. This is actually the reason why creating a program using such languages isn’t a piece of cake, although, the programming code produced is pretty understandable.

Until now, there are lots of programs for embedded technology that are created in assembly language. The program that’s responsible in transforming assembly level programs into machine level programs is called the assembler.

3. High Level Language
These computer languages are easier for humans to understand. It entails clear statements for making each instruction. Languages that fall in this category have different purposes. There are languages designed for web programming; some for desktop applications, while others can perform both tasks.

One thing to bear in mind though, high level language isn’t easy for the computer to understand. This is where the importance of an interpreter or a compiler comes in. Such programs transform the programming code into a language form the machine can understand.

Aside from these three basic levels of languages, another generation of programming language is now being designed. This is dubbed as the fourth generation language which is designed for those who have very minimal or no programming experience.

Developers of such language want these inexperienced programmers to learn to prepare their own code. This is also the very reason why high level languages like Java already came with these systems. These enable a person to write a programming code without memorizing every function.

Bear in mind that no matter what programming language you want to learn, you need to have proper understanding of the basics. If you’re not familiar with programming language basics, you will not be able to make a program in that specific language. It is advisable that you take up computer courses so you’ll be able to learn more than just the basics of computer programming.

Computer Programming Basics – Getting Started the Easy Way

A computer program is made up of a chain of instructions a computer has to perform. These instructions may come with other important data that’s needed to carry out those instructions. Hence, the process of programming involves the defining of the instructions and the data. For you to come up with data for your computer, you should be familiar with computer programming basics and the datas three fundamental elements:

1. Instructions that need to be carried out.
2. Order in which the instructions are to be carried out.
3. Data needed to do the instructions.

The first stage of computer programming basically involves paper processes. In this phase, you don’t even need to work using a computer, however if you use a word processor that will enable you to write your work to a disk file rather than in a piece of paper. You need to do this so you can figure out clearly and more specifically, what you want your computer to perform before you begin to instruct the computer to execute it.

Bear in mind that the computer will follow the instructions exactly as given. It can’t say what you want; it can rather do what you want it to do. So before your program comes close to a computer, you need to do several steps which include:

– Defining the problem
Before you instruct the computer what to do, you must first be familiar with it. You need to clearly tell the computer what it needs to accomplish or to generate as the outcome of all the activities it will perform.

– Identifying the solution
If you already know what the computer will produce as an end result, you should take a close look at the information you have, and determine the information that you require. There’s also a need for you to define the logical procedures, equations, and other methods you have to utilize so you can manipulate the raw input data into the end result you want to achieve.

– Mapping the solution
This stage in computer programming has to be laid out in proper order. Don’t forget that the sequence in which actions are used is as vital as the actions themselves. When organizing the solution into the right order, you will be putting choices into consideration.

When you’re done defining the problem as well as designing and mapping the solution, the next thing you need to do is to begin with the task of writing the program code into one or a couple of computer language(s). But before you proceed, you must first decide on the possible languages you need to use as well as the particular computer platform.

Usually, computer languages are optimized for various kinds of tasks. It is, hence, important to select first the language that will best suit the task required. Indeed, learning computer programming basics is the first step a wannabe programmer has to arm himself with, especially if he wants to pursue a career in the said field.

Computer Programming Degrees – How to Find an Accredited Technical School

A computer programming degree can lead to a career in the publishing industry, securities, commodity contracts, and financial investments, computer and electronic product manufacturing, utilities, chemical manufacturing, telecommunications, and scientific and technical services. Computer programmers may earn anywhere from $38,460 per year for entry-level positions to $106,610+ per year for
top-level positions. Most top-level professionals have a bachelor’s degree or higher in computer science.

To get started on a career as a computer programmer, you should enroll in an accredited computer science program or business program with a technology focus. You can earn your bachelor’s degree in computer science by enrolling in any number of traditional or online programs. A number of traditional colleges offer on-campus, blended, or 100 percent online programs, while others may offer traditional programs with a small percentage of classes available online. Top online colleges such as University of Phoenix and DeVry University offer computer programming degrees 100 percent online.

Before enrolling in any program, whether on-campus or online, you should check to make sure the program is accredited by an agency recognized by the U.S. Department of Education (Ed.gov). The top accrediting agencies for both traditional and online schools include:

-Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB)
-Association of Collegiate Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP)
-Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA)
-Distance Education and Training Council (DETC)
-Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools (regional)
-New England Association of Schools and Colleges (regional)
-North Central Association of Colleges and Schools (regional)
-Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities (regional)
-Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (regional)
-Western Association of Schools and Colleges (regional)

In addition to making sure the program is accredited, review the curriculum and admissions requirements. All computer programming degree programs should have a similar curriculum requirement. Traditional computer programming curriculum are still the standard in the academic world. All programs should require official transcripts, an admissions application, official test scores, recommendation letters, and an application essay.

Considering a Career in Computer Programming

As long as technology continues to develop, the demand for trained and skilled professionals in the IT sector will continue to thrive. Businesses and industries are always searching for professional programmers in departments like administration, security, and management. The growth of the Internet has seen a rise in wireless operations, networks, and client/server developments. With technology rapidly changing, the need for computer programming jobs is expected to increase to fulfill the growing demand.

As a programmer, your responsibilities evolve continuously. When choosing a computer programming degree, look for a course that is up to date with latest developments, advancements and equipment. In order to succeed, programmers need to constantly brush up their skills and knowledge in the field. Job applicants can also enhance their chances in the competitive job market by becoming certified in various languages. Many computer programming degrees also train their students for relevant certifications.

So, what exactly do computer programmers do? In short, they develop the instructions and languages that computers need to function smoothly. These functions could range from a short program to a lengthy process that could take a few years to create and implement. Programmers are also responsible for testing systems for errors and resolving issues and problems that may crop up. This process involves the use of complex technological codes or languages. Most programmers know and specialize in a variety of languages. Programmers may also be called to write manuals and instructions for other program users of a particular system or mainframe.

Many computer programmers work on a contractual basis or independently as consultants. Companies that require professionals specializing in a particular language or application may then outsource the job to computer programming consultants. Contracts could run into a few weeks to more than a year so commitment levels on such jobs are extremely demanding and high.

Programmers can be categorized into applications programmers or systems programmers. Applications programmers are those that create and modify programs for a specific purpose or cause. Systems programmers on the other hand work on a larger scale and deal with developing computer networks and operating systems. They are responsible for the effective functioning of computer hardware as well. With the rise in software packages, a new breed of software development programmers has emerged. They work with other programmers in order to create customized or packaged software such as games and other programs used for financial management and educational purposes.

Computer programmers account for nearly one and half million jobs and the numbers continue to grow. Computer programmers are required in telecommunications, management, education, the government and finance, to name a few. If a degree in computer programming is what you think you want to do, you can be sure of one thing – there’s a bright and lucrative future for such candidates.

An Overview of Nanotechnology

With state-of-the-art expertise and advanced techniques, there are various technologies that has evolved and revolutionized various aspects of day to day living and industrial know how. Nanotechnology is one of them. The usability differs from one industry to other. It is considered to be that part of science that has the capability to involve several fundamentals together. The rise of nanotechnology has been witnessed and accepted with open arms in every field.

The prominence of Nanotechnology can be felt in the research centers with constant evolution of new solutions and techniques. Various different approaches find their ways to control, manage and maintain better ways to use Nanotechnology. With its high impact and powerful functioning, the performance can be altered to suit the different requirements. It proves wonders for glass protection and other types of protective coatings.

When it comes to shielding and protecting items from contamination, dust, debris, moisture, liquid oil, etc, Nanotechnology is the best solution. The technology works as Protective Coatings and safeguards glass items from getting spoilt. It gives the products additional life span by keeping it well maintained and highly clean. There are huge benefits of Protective Coatings and it facilitates in improving the overall functionality of the glass and other silica based surfaces.

Choose Nanotechnology for that crystal clear look for your glass panels or glass walls. Make the most of this technology and give your products an added advantage of improved life span. Protective Coatings are highly popular for residential, official, auto applications and various other sectors. The layer creates a shield that is dust, water, oil, debris resistant and allows the material to remain clear and spotless.

The usage of nanotechnology and its coating can be witnessed in Shower Enclosures. The protective coatings make it stay clean for longer time. It gets easy to maintain and also enhances the look and feel of Shower Enclosures. Cleaning is easier and can be done by wiping it with cloth. Other than this, for all types of surface care, Nanotechnology can be used and keep your surfaces as good as new.

Biomedical Engineering Training Studies

The use of medical tools and aides to treat patients is possible by integrating medicine and biology to create workable technologies. Biomedical engineering is a field that is highly specialized and students can enter an education through numerous colleges and universities. There are a number of things to learn prior to enrollment in an online biomedical engineering school.

1. Studies encompass all the areas that are needed to create usable technologies for the health care field. These can include inflatable casts, ear thermometers, surgical staples, and magnetic resonance imaging machines. Students dive into a curriculum that covers biology in regards to medical engineering. Biomechanics, biomaterials, biomedical systems, linear differential equations, biofluids, and nanotechnologies are some courses that make up the overall career study. Education concentrates on how to combine science and technology to create needed biological processes to deliver improved health care. Over 100 colleges and universities offer degree programs allowing students to utilize their strengths. Specialties can include medical imaging, rehabilitation engineering, biomaterial engineering, and biomechanics engineering.

2. Introductory courses like biomedical engineering, research, and nanotechnology are typically taken in the first two years of a degree program. An introduction to biomedical engineering course teaches students the history and social relevancy of modern bioengineering areas. Study covers industry areas like action potential, signal process, genetic engineering, and bioimaging. A research course goes into how to collect and analyze biophysical measurements. Colleges teach students the process, which includes measuring, testing, and linear regression. Collecting data using different equipment like A/D boards is also touched on. The use of emerging nanoscale materials is taught in a nanotechnology course. The study on this newer form of technology is centered on applications that include electrical, biomedical, and mechanical engineering.

3. In the third and fourth years of a traditional program studies focus more on advanced subjects and concentration courses are taken. Biomechanics engineering, genetic engineering, tissue engineering, and drug delivery engineering are a few courses included in the second portion of a typical degree program. A biomechanics course focuses on the mechanics that apply to living organisms. The behaviors of organisms are studied to understand how biological processes restrain them. A genetic engineering course teaches students to understand how molecular bioengineering works and how it is used inside the industry. All areas of genetics are taught, which includes DNA breakdown, cell information, and recombinant technology in regards to DNA. Students look at all the societal issues and ethics related to genetic engineering to establish considerations for regulation. A drug delivery course focuses on the engineering of designing systems that administer drugs to patients. Biocompatibility and the formulation of controlled release devices are focused on. These courses make up key areas of studies that students follow up with advanced training and understanding.

The Green Technology

The Green Technology (greentech) also known as environmental technology (envirotech) and clean technology (cleantech) is the integration of modern technology and environmental science to better preserve the global environment and its natural resources and to mitigate the negative effects of human activity on the planet. Greentech is centered on sustainable development. It is a realm of new innovations that aim to make changes in everyday living. It can be considered to still be in its developmental stages and is still crawling its way into the market dominated by products and services that do not take the environment into consideration when trying to provide for the consumer’s wants and needs. Growing awareness of the dire state the planet is in however have caused the delegation of massive resources to the research and development of cleaner technologies which raises hope for great advancements on the said field.

Aims of Green Technology

Green Technology is considered as the future of society because we cannot go on using harmful technologies that cause negative impacts on the environment and every form of life that depends on the planet for sustenance. We humans who are supposed to be caretakers of the planet are taking it into a path towards desolation and death. Greentech aims to find and develop ways of providing man’s needs without causing damage to environment or depleting the planets natural resources too fast. Hence it provides alternatives to conventional technologies that can present almost the same level of satisfaction but with significant reduction in the negative effects to the environment.

Promoting recycling is also another goal of Green Technology through providing product alternatives that are reusable and recyclable hence significantly reducing the amount of waste and pollution that is produced during man’s production and consumption of his wants and needs.

Types of Green Technology

1. Energy
This is the most pressing issue that needs to be intervened by greentech. Conventional forms of energy generation such as fossil fuels like coal and oil produce huge amounts of pollutants when they are extracted and combusted. Almost all of the world’s air pollution is energy related. Air pollution leads to global warming and climate change. Fossil fuels are also limited and it may just be a matter of time before they are depleted. Finding and developing renewable sources of energy that will never run out is therefore one of the priorities of greentech.

2. Building
Designing and constructing buildings and infrastructure in such a way that they help conserve natural resources is also classified as Green Technology. An example of a green building is one which is built in such a way that it can keep itself cool during the day and warm during the night thus effectively reducing or even eliminating the need for heating and cooling systems.

3. Preferred Purchasing
Green technology advocates the use of a variety of techniques that enable a consumer to fund products and a manufacturer to find methods of production that have the least negative impact to the environment. General conduct of environmentally preferred purchases will prompt producers and sellers to shift to the green side of the market.

4. Chemistry
Greentech also searches for chemical products that can reduce or eliminate already existent harm to the environment such as oil spills.

5. Nanotechnology
Greentech aims to develop innovations that can integrate green principles to nanotechnology.

Science Fact – Robotics Could Help Spinal Injury Victims Move Again

Groundbreaking new technology, originally developed by the US military to help wounded soldiers who have lost limbs regain movement in prosthetic limbs, could have the capability to help spinal injury victims as well. The research, funded by the US Department of Defense and developed by the Neurophotonics Research Center, will develop a two-way fibre optic link between nerve endings and prosthetic limbs, but could also be used to ‘patch’ spinal cord injuries.

Giving amputees the chance to ‘feel’ again

For amputees, the fibre optic link allows signals to be sent between the brain and the artificial limb, allowing the user to move and even ‘feel’. But the research team leading the development also predicts that the same technology will eventually allow doctors to ‘patch’ spinal cord injuries and restore movement to parts of the body that have been paralysed. Although this application of the technology is still some way off, the researchers believe that the first positive steps in developing robotic patch technology have been made.

The project is being funded by DARPA with a grant of £5.6million and while the technology is initially being designed to help military personnel returning from the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, it could have major implications for civilian use as well. The goal is to develop a link that is compatible with living tissue which will connect powerful nanotechnology to the human nervous system through thousands of sensors running in a single fibre. Unlike electronic nerve interfaces, the fibre optic version has a much lower chance of being rejected by the human body. It is hoped that the technology will go on to treat spinal injuries by patching the broken link in the spinal cord and allowing neuro-impulses to be transmitted from the brain to muscles and tissue below the initial break.

Science fact, not science fiction

Although this sounds like science fiction, scientists now have the technology to develop it into a viable method of treating such injuries, and the medical expertise to understand exactly how the human nervous system works. With the development of nanotechnology, implants that can stimulate nerve impulses are only a few years away and could mean a revolution in the way neurological disorders and spinal injuries are treated.

Research teams across the world have currently been working on developing individual pieces of the solution, but the grant from DARPA has enabled the Neurophotonics Research Center to call in teams from some of the most prestigious research institutes (both military and civilian) to start putting the puzzle together. They hope that now everyone is working towards the same goal, they will be able to develop an integrated system that works at the cellular level within the next few years. By bringing together an advanced optical nerve stimulation process and technology that senses the neural impulses of the brain and then relays those impulses to the body, the team could create the ultimate two-way fibre optic interface and take neurotechnology to a new level. Marc Christensen, director of the Center, describes the research as having the potential to revolutionise the field of brain interfaces and believes that it could have “immeasurable benefits to humanity”. For spinal injury victims, it could mean that there is now a glimmer of hope that they will be able to regain full movement of previously useless limbs and that a chance for full recovery is now a viable, if still distant, hope.

Nansulate Reviews

At one time the largest airport in the world was in Bangkok, Thailand. After being built the developers wanted to use the most groundbreaking ecological technology in their design so they decided on nanotechnology based heat barrier paint to provide a clear lining that protected their aluminum air-bridge walls from weathering and moisture.

The coverings protected in a thin, transparent coat with a much longer lifetime than old-style fibrous insulation, while also matching beautifully with the design aesthetics.

Since the initial 2005 installation, that same insulation coating is still keeping the Suvarnabhumi International Airport green and energy efficient.

Applying this insulation is also very cost efficient and does not require costly machinery or manpower. The coatings are coated on like paint, with a sprayer, brush or roller, onto walls, ceilings, roofs, or attics.

Nanotechnology-based heat resistant paints have been used around the world since first being introduced in 2004, and are surprisingly just now growing popular in the UK, which is a bit lagging behind other countries in usage of this cutting edge tech, although recognizing its value years ago. In 2007, Nansulate, a patented portfolio of heat barrier paints, were brought up in a report titled, “Environmentally Beneficial Nanotechnologies: Barriers and Opportunities” by the Defra (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs). Under scientific analysis, five nanotech applications were put through a detailed study, and nanotech was found to have the capability to contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by up to 2% in the near term and up to 20% by 2050.

Nanotechnology and Energy Savings

Nanotechnology is merely the manipulation of ingredients at a smaller scale than previously able to. By manipulating material at the nano scale, materials can be built from the atomic level upwards with much less waste. Materials can take on dissimilar characteristics when you handle them at this level, such as silver having anti-microbial properties or the ability to insulate in a much thinner layer.

Nansulate heat barrier paint technology incorporates a harmless micro-sized nanotech based matter with nano sized makeup that has a very low heat conductivity. Furthermore the matter is hydro-phobic, which offers mold and mildew resistance without the use of toxin or poisons. This matter is delivered in a uniquely formulated clear, love VOC, water-based coating that has outstanding adhesion and light resistance.

Reduction of heat as tested to ISO 8990:1990 “Standard Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Performance of Building Assemblies” over 8 centimeter plastered, brick walls, was 34.8% at a standard 3-coat, which is approximately 6-7 mils dry film depth, and average energy savings reported by home and building owners is between 20%-40%.

Nansulate gained the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive certification for building construction standards in the European Union from the UNI EN ISO 8890:1999 tests, in regards to building lining specifications. Nanotech Coatings UK Ltd has also been given a contract with the British Board of Agreement, (“BBA”) for tests for the stated utilization of the product on inside walls and ceilings, and outside walls in residential houses for application over inside plaster and outside paneling.

The most difficult of buildings to provide insulation for are old ones. Lots of these contain solid block wall constructions that make it hard to insulate with traditional insulations. Furthermore, outdated fibrous insulations are very vulnerable to humidity, dirt, and other impurities which damage their effectiveness over time. By utilizing a fluid insulating technology that is applied just like a paint, life of the insulation is increased dramatically as well as constancy of performance. Nansulate coverings typically last from 5 to 10 years in outdoor applications, and over ten years in protected inside environments. The coat line is meant to last in all forms of severe environments from offshore oil platforms to freezing climates in Alaska.
Applying the paint is also very cost efficient and doesn’t need costly material. The coats are put on like paint, with a regular sprayer, brush or roller, onto walls, ceilings, roofs, or attics. The job is much like painting a wall; just it is done with a transparent insulation.

Mexico’s Government Health and Social Security administration (IMSS) – applied the Nanocoating in 2009 on the roof of their data center in Monterrey. This site holds the data servers which houses their digital patient information, and these servers were dying due to too much heat in the summer. Following the application of the coating and comparing year over year temp measurements, they confirmed reduction of the inside temperature by 27% and their issue with sever shut-down was resolved.

Homeowners benefit greatly from the ease of use and energy savings, with one Canvey Island residents Nansulate review being, “Prior to painting, our heating costs were quite high compared to what they are now. In fact, since applying the Nansulate I have been able to lower the thermostat from 5.5/6 to 3, basically halving the temperature.”

The future of insulation and energy efficiency is with nanotechnology. Just as computers and cellphones have become smaller and more efficient, so has our insulation technology. Heat resistant paints are the way of the future as the world gravitates toward more Eco friendly and efficient technologies that are inexpensive.